Human xylazine use in Puerto Rico merits particular attention for its unprecedented scale and depth. Although Puerto Rican injecting drug users (IDUs) have reported using this drug since the early 2000s, little is being done in the research and service delivery sectors as it is claimed that xylazine severely impacts the health of its users. This report provides information on xylazine use and its associated harms. Data from one semi-structured interview collected in New York City (2007-2008) as part of a larger research study with migrant Puerto Rican drug users is presented as a case study. Xylazine, a veterinary sedative, is an adulterant and complement to other drugs and its chronic use is reported to be associated with physical deterioration. Because human xylazine use has been reported in other locations outside of Puerto Rico, this substance could also emerge as an adulterant in other markets to the levels currently experienced in Puerto Rico. Research and interventions are needed to provide adequate services on the island, better understand how the use of xylazine affects its users, and to reduce the possibility of increased xylazine use on the state-side.
Since the early 2000's Puerto Rico has seen an emergence of a substance among its injecting drug users (IDUs) called xylazine. Xylazine is a non-opiate sedative, analgesic, and muscle relaxant certified exclusively for veterinary use. The harms associated with the chronic use of xylazine, or "Anestesia de Caballo" (Horse Anesthetic) as it is commonly known on the streets of Puerto Rico, are not well documented as it has received little attention from researchers. Yet, some associations have been made between the use of xylazine and open skin ulcers  that have serious negative effects on the daily lives of injecting drug users. While the precise reasons why xylazine emerged in the island's drug market are still unknown, it is argued that the same motivating factors could also occur in other markets, including those in the continental United States and create an equally problematic public health issue.
These ulcers are a serious health concern for drug users for several key reasons. First, they are painful. This promotes further injections in the injection/ulcer site with xylazine (functioning as a sedative/anesthetic). This subsequently creates a cycle that heightens the need for medical attention and adequate treatment. It should be noted, however, that not all ulcers appear in the injection sites, they are also reported to appear in non-injection site extremities. Second, these open skin ulcers emit a strong odor, ooze, and in severe cases limit the mobility of the extremities. In some cases, amputations have been performed on the affected extremity/extremities. Third, xylazine users attest that when they have asked for help from clinics on the island, health professionals commonly deny services because of their ulcers. Pipo, in the above interview mentions that he was lucky because the ulcers took time to develop in his body - by the time they developed, he had relocated to the state-side and could access medical services. He points to the lack of treatment for these ulcers in Puerto Rico, the lack of xylazine availability on the state-side, and the knowledge that some state-side hospitals have gained by providing services to drug users that are relocated from Puerto Rico to the state-side for treatment by the local Puerto Rican government.
Note: An advertising flyer from the Dental Organization for Conscious Sedation (DOCS) incorrectly stated that use of any (emphasis in the original) oral sedative used in-office requires a sedation permit. The NC Dental Board's policy is that "administration of a single dose of a minor psychosedative, possibly in combination with nitrous oxide, to children or adults prior to the commencement of treatment on the day of the appointment..." is considered anxiolysis and DOES NOT require a sedation permit (21NCAC 16Q.0101(3)).
A. Yes. Anxiolysis, for which no permit is needed, is restricted to cases in which the dentist administers a single dose of a minor psychosedative, possibly in combination with nitrous oxide. By cutting the pill in half, the dentist is administering two doses, for which he or she would need a minimal conscious sedation permit.
A. Yes. You may direct the patient to take a single dose of a minor psychosedative the night before treatment. You may also administer a single dose of a minor psychosedative on the day of the appointment, before treatment begins. Nitrous oxide may also be administered.
Successful de-prescribing of benzodiazepines and other sedative hypnotics (BSH) medications in the community setting has been demonstrated by Dr. Cara Tannenbaum in Montreal. The EMPOWER cluster randomized trial engaged patients at their pharmacy when they were renewing these medications. In the intervention group, a simple patient empowerment pamphlet was given to patients by the pharmacist. This contained evidence-based information on harms versus benefits of BSH medications, and a stepwise tapering tool.
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We retrospectively reviewed sedated patients who received NIV due to acute respiratory failure from May 2007 to May 2012. Sedation level was controlled according to the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS). Clinical background, sedatives, failure rate of sedation, and complications were evaluated by 1) sedative methods (intermittent only, switched to continuous, or initially continuous) and 2) code status (do-not-intubate [DNI] or non-DNI).
Our hospital is a 700-bed tertiary care center that plays a central role in treating emergency patients in the surrounding area. Among consecutive patients over 16 years old who underwent continuous NIV due to acute respiratory failure from May 2007 to May 2012, we retrospectively evaluated patients who received sedatives for agitation during NIV.
We assigned patients to 3 groups; one group received sedatives only intermittently (intermittent only), a second group was switched to continuous sedation after intermittent sedation (switched to continuous) and the third group was initially sedated continuously (initially continuous). According to code status, we also classified patients into non-DNI and DNI groups. Patients in the non-DNI group were intubated and mechanically ventilated if control was not achieved by NIV, while patients in the DNI group were continuously controlled by NIV and were not intubated even if consciousness deteriorated following sedation or their conditions became critical. Code status of neurologically incompetent patients was determined by discussion with relatives. When patients or their families did not want ventilation to be provided (including NIV) or their baseline status was difficult to maintain with NIV, we suggested that ventilation not be applied from the viewpoint of ethics.
Number of patients at each stage of analysis and method of administration sedative drugs. Patients were categorized into the non-DNI group and DNI group. NIV, noninvasive ventilation; DNI, do-not-intubate. *: 4 patients used sedation for pain and 2 for convulsion
Table 3 shows the prescribed sedatives. Twenty-four (50 %) patients received a single drug and the remaining patients received more than one drug for continuous use. With the exception of risperidone or haloperidol, hydroxyzine, quetiapine, diazepam or perospirone was used intermittently.
As shown in Table 6, no patient vomited or developed aspiration pneumonitis during NIV treatment. Among the adverse events, 1 patient who had been prescribed midazolam became hypotensive requiring dopamine, 1 patient experienced delirium, and 1 patient developed ileus, which improved following the discontinuation of sedatives. Three patients who had hypercapnia before sedation exhibited drowsiness due to progressive hypercapnia, which improved following an increase in pressure support levels. Before and after the start of sedation, the RASS score, respiratory rate, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure did not differ significantly between intermittent and continuous use groups, nor did acute changes occur during the 24 h from the start of sedation (Additional file 1).
In this study, patients were divided into two groups; DNI and non-DNI groups. Although this resulted in a small sample size for analysis in some groups, we thought that differences in the usage of sedatives between DNI and non-DNI patients might be informative to those managing NIV treatment with sedatives. When NIV treatment is not effective in non-DNI patients, physicians usually choose intubation with mechanical ventilation. However, in DNI patients, intubation with mechanical ventilation is not performed when NIV treatment is not effective. That is, in the light of respiratory management, failure to control agitation would become fatal, and continuing NIV treatment with sedation is critical in the DNI group. On the other hand, in the non-DNI group, when we cannot continue NIV, we can perform intubation and continue mechanical ventilation. So in such cases we do not necessarily persist in continuing NIV treatment, and sedation is optional. In this study, 9 (23 %) non-DNI patients were intubated for reasons other than sedation insufficiency, such as exacerbation of the respiratory status or hemodynamic instability (Table 5). Therefore, especially in patients with underlying diseases in which there is not strong evidence for the effectiveness of NIV treatment, we should avoid delaying intubation due to persistence in administering sedatives during NIV in non-DNI patients [14, 15]. 041b061a72